莎士比亞的香脂係列:宮鬥戲總是相似的

來源: 2021-07-20 08:59:45 [] [博客] [舊帖] [給我悄悄話] 本文已被閱讀: 次 (15219 bytes)

第五處:《亨利四世》第二部(2nd Henry IV)第四幕第五場:哈利王子來到病房,發現重病昏睡在床的亨利四世沒有任何呼吸的跡象,以為他過世了。他傷心地拿起擺在父親枕邊的王冠,戴在自己的頭上,然後悄悄退出了房間。亨利四世醒來,發現王冠不見了,得知兒子哈利曾經來過,立刻猜到王冠被兒子拿走了,不由惱羞成怒,派人將兒子喚來。哈利王子說:“我以為不會聽見您再次說話。”(I never thought to hear you speak again.)

亨利四世狠狠地訓斥兒子:“你有那種想法,哈利,是因為你心存著那樣的願望。在你眼裏我活得太久,讓你厭倦了。你是否如此貪戀我的空位,所以在時機尚未成熟之前,就要攫取王權的榮耀?哦,愚蠢的年輕人,你追尋的尊榮會把你壓垮的。不妨稍微再等一會兒,因為我的榮耀就像一絲微風托住的雲,很快會墜落。我的白晝已經昏暗了,你所偷去的東西,再過幾個小時後就名正言順地歸屬於你。你在我臨死的時候,確證了我的期望。你平生的所作所為都可以表明你根本不愛我,你又在我臨終之際證實了你的不孝。你的思想裏藏著一千柄匕首,你把它們在你那石塊一般的心上磨得鋒利,希望在我生命最後的半小時謀刺我。嘿!你難道不能再忍受我半小時嗎?那麽你去親自為我挖一座墳墓吧,讓歡快的鍾聲響徹你的耳際,報知你加冕的喜訊,而不是我崩逝的噩耗。讓應該灑在我的靈車上的所有眼淚,成為塗抹你的頭頂的香膏。把我和被遺忘的塵土混合在一起,把那給你生命的人丟與蛆蟲吧。撤銷我的官員,廢除我的法令,因為一個嘲笑權威的時代到來了。亨利五世已經加冕為王!起來吧,浮華虛榮!沒落吧,皇家威嚴!你們所有這些聰明睿智的臣子,趕緊滾吧!四方遊手好閑的蠢材要聚集在英國的宮廷裏了!鄰邦啊,現在把你們的敗類清除出來吧。你們有沒有通宵謾罵酗酒、跳舞狂歡、殺人越貨、無惡不作的流氓?開心起來吧,他不會再來煩惱你們了。英國將要給他的三倍罪惡鍍上雙層金,英國將要給他官位和榮耀,因為第五代的哈利將要鬆開奢淫這條野狗的口套,讓它把利齒咬進每個無辜者的肌肉裏。哦,我的瘡痍未息的可憐的王國!我竭盡全力還不能平定你的禍亂。當禍亂籠罩著你時,你又該怎麽辦呢?哦,你將要再次變成一片殘狼遍地的荒野,這裏曾是它們的故居。”

(Thy wish was father, Harry, to that thought.

I stay too long by thee; I weary thee.

Dost thou so hunger for mine empty chair

That thou wilt needs invest thee with my honors

Before thy hour be ripe? O foolish youth,

Thou seek’st the greatness that will overwhelm thee.

Stay but a little, for my cloud of dignity

Is held from falling with so weak a wind

That it will quickly drop. My day is dim.

Thou hast stol'n that which after some few hours

Were thine without offense, and at my death

Thou hast sealed up my expectation.

Thy life did manifest thou loved’st me not,

And thou wilt have me die assured of it.

Thou hid’st a thousand daggers in thy thoughts,

Which thou hast whetted on thy stony heart

To stab at half an hour of my life.

What, canst thou not forbear me half an hour?

Then get thee gone and dig my grave thyself,

And bid the merry bells ring to thine ear

That thou art crownèd, not that I am dead.

Let all the tears that should bedew my hearse

Be drops of balm to sanctify thy head;

Only compound me with forgotten dust.

Give that which gave thee life unto the worms.

Pluck down my officers, break my decrees,

For now a time is come to mock at form.

Harry the Fifth is crowned. Up, vanity,

Down, royal state, all you sage counsillors, hence,

And to the English court assemble now,

From every region, apes of idleness.

Now, neighbor confines, purge you of your scum.

Have you a ruffian that will swear, drink, dance,

Revel the night, rob, murder, and commit

The oldest sins the newest kind of ways?

Be happy, he will trouble you no more.

England shall double gild his treble guilt.

England shall give him office, honor, might,

For the fifth Harry from curbed license plucks

The muzzle of restraint, and the wild dog

Shall flesh his tooth on every innocent.

O my poor kingdom, sick with civil blows!

When that my care could not withhold thy riots,

What wilt thou do when riot is thy care?

O, thou wilt be a wilderness again,

Peopled with wolves, thy old inhabitants.)

哈利將王冠還給父親,並下跪請求原諒。他解釋說,他剛才誤以為父親駕崩了,於是拿走了王冠。他在另一個房間裏責罵王冠,認為是它害死了父親。他一邊咒罵,一邊戴上王冠,想試試看王冠是否讓他產生了悖逆虛榮的心理。如果事實如此,他願上帝永遠不把它加在自己的頭上。盡管作為讀者的我並不否認哈利對父親的熱愛,不過他的借口實在有些牽強,難以掩飾他的野心。但亨利四世還是原諒了兒子,語重心長地說出了遺言:統一後的英國必須多多對外發動戰爭,這是轉移國內矛盾的最好方法。

第四幕第五場是一場重頭戲,表現了兩個主題:生與死,父與子。王冠從生命垂危的父親手中傳給了兒子。老國王些許釋然,他畢生的煎熬終於換來了兒子名正言順的繼位。亨利四世是通過叛亂奪取了王位,有點名不正言不順,登基幾個月後就要麵對貴族的謀反。之後他的國土上叛亂頻繁,他這位操心勞神的國王一次次地平定禍亂。然而他摯愛的兒子哈利卻放浪形骸,和一幫狐朋狗友成天混跡於酒館妓院。老國王十分無奈,叛軍和不肖之子,不知哪個才是他的心頭最痛。臨終前,他選擇寬恕兒子,並對他寄予厚望。事實證明,亨利五世並沒有辜負父親的重托,他登基前的放浪形骸隻是一種刻意的偽裝,麻痹了周圍虎視眈眈的政敵。在他短暫的九年統治期間,他取得了中世紀任何一位英格蘭國王都未取得過的軍事輝煌。

第六處:曆史劇《亨利六世》第三部《3rd Henry VI》,第三幕第一場:兩名穿越蘇格蘭森林的狩獵者發現了逃到此地的亨利六世,聽到他自言自語:“我從蘇格蘭偷偷溜回來,懷著真誠的愛,用渴望的目光迎接自己的國土。不對,哈利,哈利,這不是你的國土了。你的王位已經被人占了,你的權杖已經被人奪走,膏抹你的香脂已經洗掉了。現在沒有人再跪在你麵前尊稱你為凱撒了,沒有人靠近你討封賞,不,沒有人向你伸訴冤屈了。因為我現在自顧不暇,哪裏還能幫助他們呢?”

(KING HENRY VI

From Scotland am I stol'n, even of pure love, To greet mine own land with my wishful sight. No, Harry, Harry, 'tis no land of thine; Thy place is fill'd, thy sceptre wrung from thee, Thy balm wash'd off wherewith thou wast anointed: No bending knee will call thee Caesar now,  No humble suitors press to speak for right, No, not a man comes for redress of thee; For how can I help them, and not myself?)

第七處:曆史劇《亨利六世》第三部, 第四幕第八場:亨利六世認為自己是個好國王,他說:“我並不擔心這個。我的德行為我帶來了好名聲。我一向認真傾聽他們的要求,及時處理他們的訴訟。我的憐憫是治愈他們傷口的香膏,我的溫和減輕了他們的悲痛,我的同情拭幹了他們汩汩的淚水。我並不渴望他們的錢財,也不對他們橫征暴斂。即使他們犯了很多錯誤,我也不急於報複。那麽他們為什麽愛愛德華勝過愛我呢?不會的,愛克塞特,以德報德,獅子討好羊羔,羊羔就會永遠跟隨著獅子。”

 

(KING HENRY VI

That's not my fear; my meed hath got me fame: I have not stopp'd mine ears to their demands, Nor posted off their suits with slow delays; My pity hath been balm to heal their wounds, My mildness hath allay'd their swelling griefs, My mercy dried their water-flowing tears; I have not been desirous of their wealth, Nor much oppress'd them with great subsidies. Nor forward of revenge, though they much err'd: Then why should they love Edward more than me? No, Exeter, these graces challenge grace:  And when the lion fawns upon the lamb, The lamb will never cease to follow him. )

第八處:曆史劇《理查三世》(Richard III)第一幕第二場:役吏們抬著亨利六世的棺具上,安夫人(Anne, 亨利六世的兒媳婦,愛德華的妻子)送殯致哀。她說: “放下來,放下你們的榮耀負擔,假如靈車四周能被榮耀籠罩的話,我正好乘此機會莊嚴哀悼這位不幸橫死的賢德的蘭開斯特。(他們放下棺木)可憐的聖君啊,遺體已冰涼,蘭開斯特家族的灰燼。您那王族血液都已流盡,願國法容許我呼喚你的鬼魂,傾聽可憐的安的哀歎。我就是您遇害的兒子愛德華的妻子,他被謀害您的同一隻毒手殺害。瞧,我無助的淚水仿如香脂,落在您身上那些泄漏元氣的傷口破裂處。啊,詛咒那個戳開了這些傷孔的劊子手,詛咒那個狠心下手的狼心狗肺,詛咒那個放幹了您的血的冷血動物。願厄運降臨在那個可惡的家夥的頭上,他害死了您,令我們痛苦萬分,我希望他所遭受的報應比世間的那些狼、蜘蛛、蟾蜍、虺蜮應得的結局更加殘酷。願他的孩子是一個早產的怪物,不足月便落地,醜陋猙獰的麵目使期待著的母親一見就感到恐懼。願這個孩子一輩子不幸。願他的妻子因喪夫而更加悲慘,比我因失去丈夫和您所承受的痛苦更多。— 來吧,請你們將這神聖的負擔從聖保羅修道院送往徹特西修道院安葬吧。”

(ANNE

Set down, set down your honorable load,

If honor may be shrouded in a hearse,

Whilst I awhile obsequiously lament

Th' untimely fall of virtuous Lancaster.

 

(They set down the bier)

 

Poor key-cold figure of a holy king,

Pale ashes of the house of Lancaster,

Thou bloodless remnant of that royal blood,

Be it lawful that I invocate thy ghost

To hear the lamentations of poor Anne,

Wife to thy Edward, to thy slaughtered son,

Stabbed by the selfsame hand that made these wounds.

Lo, in these windows that let forth thy life

I pour the helpless balm of my poor eyes.

O, cursèd be the hand that made these holes;

Cursèd the heart that had the heart to do it;

Cursèd the blood that let this blood from hence.

More direful hap betide that hated wretch

That makes us wretched by the death of thee

Than I can wish to wolves, to spiders, toads,

Or any creeping venomed thing that lives.

If ever he have child, abortive be it,

Prodigious, and untimely brought to light,

Whose ugly and unnatural aspect

May fright the hopeful mother at the view,

And that be heir to his unhappiness.

If ever he have wife, let her be made

More miserable by the death of him

Than I am made by my poor lord and thee.—

Come now towards Chertsey with your holy load,

Taken from Paul’s to be interrèd there.)

我們可以把《亨利六世》第一、二、三部和《理查三世》看成四部曲,這些作品全是關於英國曆史上的玫瑰戰爭(Wars of the Roses,1455年─1485年)的。金雀花王朝(House of Plantagenet)王室的分支 – 蘭開斯特家族(House of Lancaster)和約克家族(House of York)為了爭奪英格蘭王位而發生了斷續的內亂。“玫瑰戰爭”這個用語在當時並未出現,莎士比亞在編寫《亨利六世》時,以兩朵玫瑰被拔標誌戰爭的開始,才成為普遍用語。此名源於兩個家族的家徽,蘭開斯特的紅玫瑰和約克的白玫瑰。

你會在這些莎士比亞早期的戲劇裏發現一些相似的元素,如冷酷無情的當權女人,軟弱的國王、狡猾奸詐的小人等。這些元素陸續出現在他後來的一些戲劇角色中,如麥克白夫人(Lady Macbeth)、李爾王、伊阿古( Iago,《奧賽羅》中的人物)等。

《亨利六世》第三部中,愛德華搶了亨利六世的王位,亨利六世被監禁。獲救後的亨利六世打敗愛德華,重新奪回王位,愛德華遭到驅逐。隨後愛德華又集結軍隊打敗亨利,當上了國王,被關起來的亨利被未來的理查三世殺死。就連貴族們也是不忠誠的,輕易背叛主子。螳螂捕蟬,黃雀在後,《理查三世》中,理查成功篡位。這些曆史性事件讓觀眾應接不暇,應了一句“亂哄哄,你方唱罷我登場”。

可見古今中外的宮鬥總是相似的。




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