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美國防部長苦尋在中國秘密失蹤間諜好友

(2006-05-11 17:14:16) 下一個

據環球時報引述最新一期美國《福布斯》雜誌披露,去年10月,素來對華強硬的美國國防部長拉姆斯菲爾德在訪華時,曾私下對中國方麵表示,希望中國幫助尋找一名美國間諜的下落───這位拉氏青年時代的好友於50年前在一場對中國的空中偵察活動中失蹤。這個人究竟是誰?為何會讓美國國防部長牽掛了50年之久?(chinesenewsnet.com)

  曾與拉氏一起死裏逃生,常借拉氏小屋幽會女友(

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Navy Lt. James Brayton Deane Jr. poses for a portrait in uniform in 1956

這位神秘人物名叫小詹姆斯·B·迪恩,他在大學期間經同鄉介紹,與拉姆斯菲爾德成為好友。1954年,他們一起進入海軍接受飛行訓練,迪恩成了拉氏的副駕駛。在拉氏的印象裏,當時年僅24歲的迪恩身體強壯,詼諧幽默。拉氏稱:“我們總是形影不離,他是我最好的朋友。”(chinesenewsnet.com)

有一次,兩人共同駕機訓練,飛機離地的一瞬間突然出現異常,迪恩立刻提醒拉氏,飛機右輪可能爆胎,建議立即駕機返回機場。發生故障的飛機在著陸時與地麵發生劇烈摩擦,拉氏和迪恩握住操縱杆的手臂幾乎因此失去知覺,但最終化險為夷。這次死裏逃生的經曆讓兩人的關係更進了一步。

那時,迪恩的女朋友貝弗莉·沙弗經常到基地與他相會。由於迪恩沒有房子,所以沙弗一般都會臨時住在拉氏家裏。之後的兩年時間裏,拉姆斯菲爾德的小屋子成了迪恩和沙弗愛情進展的聖地,直到他們在1956年5月19日結為夫妻。然而迪恩和沙弗的幸福生活被美國的冷戰政治打破,當年5月底,迪恩所在的部隊移防到日本,小夫妻也一起搬到岩國海軍航空站軍營。從此以後,拉姆斯菲爾德就再也沒有見過迪恩。(chinesenewsnet.com)

  我戰機夜戰美偵察機,美間諜魂斷浪崗山(

Navy pilot Lt. James B. Deane, Jr., and his wife Beverly pose for a photo at their home in Japan the day before he left on his last mission.

迪恩服役的海軍第1電子戰中隊(VQ-1)綽號“全球守望者”,是美國老牌電子偵察部隊,他們經常沿中國大陸、蘇聯以及朝鮮海岸線飛行,就近收集各種電子情報,有時為了誘使對方雷達或其他電子設備開機,飛行員甚至冒著被擊落的危險闖入別國領空。(chinesenewsnet.com)

冷戰開始後,美國為搜集中國軍事情報,處心積慮對大陸縱深進行戰略偵察,僅1951─1953年期間,美機侵犯中國領空就達3萬多架次,嚴重威脅我國安全。當時中國空軍的主力戰機沒有雷達,夜晚攔截時,隻能靠地麵雷達引導攻擊,十分困難。為了尋求更好的偵察效果,美偵察機一般選在晴朗的月夜進行入侵,這倒給中國空軍提供了利用劣勢裝備攔截敵機的可能。

1956年8月22日深夜,一架美國海軍P4M-1Q型電子偵察機從台灣新竹機場起飛,偷偷摸摸接近大陸,機上16名成員中就包括迪恩。這架美機沿著S形路線飛行,擦著我國的領海線時進時出,多次闖入我領海線範圍內,對我軍事設施實行電子偵察,打算撈一把就溜。讓迪恩等人萬萬沒想到的是,他們的行蹤早已落入了解放軍雷達部隊布下的天羅地網。中國飛行員張文逸奉命駕駛殲擊機立即起飛攔截。雖然當晚是下弦月,影響到飛行員的視線,但由於地麵雷達精確測定了美機的航向、高度和位置,張文逸很快在舟山附近上空發現目標,美偵察機卻毫無察覺,迪恩一行已成甕中之鱉。

地麵上,空4軍軍長高厚良少將和南京軍區空軍司令員聶鳳智中將也一直注視著雷達熒光屏。由於夜晚難以辨別機徽,再加上雷達探測距離有限,無法準確判斷該機到底是從日本、韓國還是台灣飛來的,因此存在著它究竟是國民黨軍機還是美機的疑問。最後首長下定決心,隻要該偵察機再次跨入我國領空就把它堅決消滅。(chinesenewsnet.com)

當這架飛機再一次竄入我衢山島黃澤山上空時,高厚良果斷地下令開炮攻擊。張文逸駕機在短暫的幾十秒鍾內連續向美偵察機三次開炮,敵機拖著濃煙拚命地朝公海方向逃去,最後消失在舟山群島東部浪崗山附近海域。這是美國海軍第1電子戰中隊在冷戰期間的第一批殉葬者。在整個冷戰期間,這個中隊共有47人喪生,其損失之慘重在美軍中相當驚人。(chinesenewsnet.com)

  周總理親自修改新聞稿,解放軍逼退美航母艦隊

A Martin P4M-1Q Mercator similar to this one, carrying Lt. James B. Deane Jr. and 15 other men, was shot down near China in 1956.

由於空戰發生在夜間,中國空軍當時未能確認敵機的國別。為避免擴大事態,周恩來總理親自修改了新華社的新聞稿:“新華社23日訊:本月23日零時後在上海東南海麵上空發現蔣軍飛機一架,竄入我馬鞍列島上空,我空軍飛機當即起飛。蔣機繼續竄入嵊泗列島上空,與我機在衢山島之黃澤山上空遭遇,被我擊傷,敵機當即向東南方向逃去。”此文一不提“美機”二字,二點明“遭遇”是在“中國領土上空”,三交代“敵機當即向東南方向逃去”,任美國耍什麽花樣都找不出破綻。(chinesenewsnet.com)

在美國,P4M-1Q偵察機在中國領空失蹤,立即引起一陣驚恐。8月25日,美國海軍第7艦隊司令普賴德中將率航母戰鬥群出現在中國東海海域,擺開挑戰的架勢,從3艘航母上起飛的200架飛機密布天空。麵對危機,聶鳳智命令隻派幾架正常巡邏的飛機,在絕對領空內巡邏,不要主動向美軍攻擊,靜觀事態變化。麵對解放軍的嚴陣以待,美艦隊最終灰溜溜地撤走了。美國政府也不得不發表聲明,承認飛機可能飛越了中國的島嶼,但又詭稱中國空軍的攻擊是“不正當”的,要求中國承擔這次事件的責任。這種無理要求立即遭到我國政府的嚴詞拒絕。(chinesenewsnet.com)

為獲得美軍侵入我國的物證,1957年1月,我海軍奉命開到浪崗山海域進行搜索,潛水員先後打撈出發動機、機翼、雷達儀器等美機殘骸。不久,舟山漁民又用尼龍漁網撈起兩具美軍飛行員屍體,由於天氣炎熱怕屍體腐爛,漁民們便將屍體裝在大缸裏密封,運到上海交給部隊。出於人道主義考慮,中方將美飛行員屍體交給英國駐滬領事館接收。隨後,那兩個裝屍體的大缸,從上海港裝上了英國商船,海運至美國夏威夷。最後,加上美軍自己搜到的兩具屍體,美國隻得到4具機組成員屍體,包括迪恩在內的其他12名機組成員下落不明。(chinesenewsnet.com)

  苦尋間諜好友20載,拉氏不惜利用國防部長特權(chin

esenewsnet.com)

Donald Rumsfeld, also a Navy pilot at the time, considered Deane a friend. Rumsfeld's efforts to help Deane's wife learn his fate were private until now.

拉姆斯菲爾德卻對迪恩的失蹤一直耿耿於懷。1975年11月,他擔任福特總統的國防部長,開始秘密調查迪恩的下落。當時美中兩國才剛剛恢複官方交往,福特政府通用外交渠道,希望中國政府透露關於迪恩和其他失蹤機組人員的信息。時任美國國務卿的基辛格在當年的備忘錄中這樣寫道:“中國私底下告訴我們,他們沒有找到任何屍體,也沒有發現任何相關情況。”(chinesenewsnet.com)

20世紀90年代末,應拉姆斯菲爾德的要求,美海軍前高級情報官員理查德·海弗再次調查了迪恩事件。但他還是得出一個悲觀的結論:通過分析P4M-1Q偵察機的殘骸可以證明,在墜機的一刹那,飛機是機頭入水的,這是“難以讓人生還的入水方式”,迪恩生還的概率“微乎其微”。拉姆斯菲爾德並不甘心,2005年10月的北京之行是他為此事尋找答案的最新努力。但中國方麵經過細致調查,仍隻能給予拉氏這樣的回答:“我們沒有發現什麽。”

Lt. j.g. James Deane outside the bachelors' officers quarters at Naval flight school in Pensacola, Fla., in 1955.

附一: 美聯社(AP)的報道:
Rumsfeld Presses China on Fate of Pilot
By ROBERT BURNS

WASHINGTON (May 6) - In August 1956 a newlywed Navy pilot, Lt. James B. Deane Jr., was shot out of the sky on a nighttime spy flight off the coast of China. Nearly half a century later, a famous friend found himself in Beijing with a chance to quietly press Chinese leaders for more cooperation in resolving Deane's fate.

The friend was Donald H. Rumsfeld, the defense secretary known for hardline views on communist China. He and Deane were fellow Navy fliers and became buddies while stationed together in Florida in 1954 and 1955.

Rumsfeld's personal connection to the Deane case is a coincidence of history not publicly reported until now.

The chief focus of Rumsfeld's visit to Beijing last October was his concern about China's military buildup. Privately, he also made a point of urging Chinese officials to look further into the Deane episode. Like other efforts he made on behalf of Deane's widow before becoming defense secretary, his urging yielded no new answers.

The Cold War case has been clouded in mystery and secrecy since the Martin P4M-1Q Mercator in which Deane and 15 other men were flying was shot down over the East China Sea shortly after midnight Aug. 23, 1956. Rumsfeld raised it while also seeking more Chinese openness on all cases of missing U.S. servicemen.

"I remember the good times with him and remember the sorrow of losing him," he said of his friend in an interview with The Associated Press.

China has acknowledged that its jet fighters attacked the Mercator as it scooped up electronic intelligence on military radars and other sensitive Chinese systems. But China repeatedly has denied knowing Deane's fate.

The remains of four crew members were recovered - two by the crew of a U.S. search vessel and two by China, which returned the bodies through British authorities in Shanghai. The other 12 were never found. Adding to the mystery were unconfirmed U.S. intelligence reports, in the months after the plane was shot down, that Deane and perhaps one other may have survived the crash and been taken to a Chinese hospital.

A March 4, 1957, report by the 6004th Air Intelligence Service Squadron said two survivors of the Mercator attack had been moved in late November to the residence of a Chinese government official. Identifying information for one "appears to fit the description of Lieutenant (junior grade) James Brayton Deane, Jr.," said the report, which was declassified in 1993.

The Rumsfeld-Deane link is the only known instance of a secretary of defense, whose official duties include overseeing U.S. government efforts to account for missing-in-action servicemen, having a personal link to an MIA involving China. It is a coincidence that Rumsfeld has kept out of the public spotlight in deference to Deane's widow, Dr. Beverly Deane Shaver, who until now had pursued the matter strictly in private.

Now Shaver is going public, eager to express her gratitude for Rumsfeld's support and correct what she believes has been a false U.S. government characterization of her first husband's fate.

"He was declared missing, when I'm 99.9 percent certain he was not. He was alive," she said in a telephone interview from her home in suburban Phoenix. "It almost makes a person's life a lie, and that really bothered me."

Deane was 24 years old.

"He was a big man, physically, and had a good smile and enjoyed life," Rumsfeld said in the interview. "As an aviator he was a very serious person. He was a fine, enjoyable person to be around."

A year after the plane was shot down, the Navy told Shaver that Deane was presumed dead, based on an absence of evidence that he was alive. Shaver, however, now feels she has seen enough evidence - including declassified intelligence reports - to conclude that he likely survived the attack, if not a subsequent detention.

附二、美國海軍網紀錄損傷人員名單:

22 AUG 56 - P4M-1Q Mercator Buno 124362, staging from Iwakuni, Japan.
Squadron VQ-1. Shot down off Wenchai, China.

Fatalities:
Ltjg. James B. Deane,
Ltjg. Francis A. Flood,Jr,
Lcdr. Milton Hutchinson,
Lcdr. James W. Ponsford,
AT2 Donald Wayne Barber,
AO2 Warren Edgar Caron,
AT3 Jack Albert Curtis,
AT1 William Frederick Haskins,
AO3 William Michael Humbert,
AD1 H.E. Lounsbury,
AT1 Albert Perry Mattin,
AT2 Carl Edwin Messinger,
AE2 Wallace Powell,
AT3 Donald Eugene Sprinkle,
AT2 Leonard Strykowski,
AD3 Lloyd Lewayne Young.

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