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共產黨重錘打擊下,中國“聖母軍”在華覆滅始末(圖)

(2011-06-12 08:41:53) 下一個

新中國成立之初,百廢待興,然而,西方敵對勢力對這個新生政權極端仇視,進行各種搗亂和破壞,其在華滲透多年的地下組織——“聖母軍”,就充當了破壞新中國的危先鋒。為保衛新生的共和國,中國果斷出手,一舉摧毀了“聖母軍”。

中國“聖母軍”始於1930年

“聖母軍”又稱“聖母禦侍團”,1921年9月成立於愛爾蘭都柏林。“聖母軍”總部設在都柏林,其成員加入時,要經過申請、試練,成績合格才能宣誓入冊。“聖母軍”團員分正式團員、榮譽團員、輔助團員、禦侍團員,禦侍團員係“聖母軍”核心成員。“聖母軍”總部編寫了一本《聖母軍手冊》,作為該組織的“最高讀物”。該手冊長達300多頁,中文版係原梵蒂岡駐華公使黎培裏的秘書陳哲敏翻譯而成,並在中國翻印數次,印數達2萬餘冊。“聖母軍”敵視共產黨,反對社會主義,公然聲稱:“在社會主義國家裏,要毀滅罪惡的通知,推翻它的基礎,在它的殘碑碣裏豎起基督神聖的旗幟。”據有關史料記載,中國一直是“聖母軍”發展的重點地區。“聖母軍”最早在1930年就派愛爾蘭籍的神父莫克勤來中國發展成員。1930年6月,莫克勤到湖北,以傳教的名義在漢陽建立了活動據點。到1937年他在湖北潛江秘密組織了5個支團,成員達到千人。由於在湖北發展“聖母軍”成效顯著,1946年12月莫克勤被“聖母軍”總部召回去接受專門訓練。1948年,莫克勤就派到美國考察、研究,並於美國情報機構有所接觸,還參加過華盛頓、舊金山等地”聖母軍”的集會。解放戰爭末期,西方敵對勢力及“聖母軍”眼見共產黨領導的解放戰爭節節勝利,焦急萬分。為此,黎培裏電召莫克勤來中國,要他統領中國各地的“聖母軍”組織,與新中國對抗。

上海是“聖母軍”在華總部

1948年夏,莫克勤風塵仆仆來到中國。他和黎培裏聯係後決定以宗教為掩護,大力擴展“聖母軍”,並在中國上海嶽陽路197號成立了“天主教中央局”,其公開組織叫“中國天主教教務協進會”。莫克勤、沈士賢為總部負責人。莫克勤上任後,對共產黨組織及其軍隊的日益壯大很是擔憂,他與黎培裏密商後,一致認為應趕快在全國各地,尤其是人口密度大的地區擴展“聖母軍”組織,以阻止共產黨在各地的發展。

黎、莫在平津活動期間,還極力鼓動兩市“聖母軍”成員大力支持即將垮台的蔣介石政權,並指使“天主教文化協會”等團體公開發表堅決用戶蔣政權的通電。

華北解放後,人民解放軍長驅直入,黎培裏又指使莫克勤在兩廣、四川等地突擊發展“聖母軍”組織。短短時間裏,莫克勤在上述地區建立了28個“聖母軍”區會,400餘個支團,4次印刷《聖母軍手冊》1.2萬冊及各種反共宣傳品十餘種。1949年6月,黎培裏見共產黨和人民解放軍很受民眾和許多天主教徒擁護,深感不安。為阻止這一態勢蔓延,他於7月1日下發了《羅馬聖職部命令》,其主要內容有四:一、參加共產黨對共產黨表示熱忱不合法。共產黨的領袖們雖然不反宗教,而事實上在理論或實際上是仇視的。二、出版、宣傳或閱讀載有共產黨理論或行動的書籍、雜誌、報章,或在那些刊物上寫文章,是不合法的,應依法禁止。三、凡做過以上兩項事情的教徒,照通常原則,不得參與聖餐祭禮。四、信仰共產黨唯物主義、反宗教理論的教徒,要受到驅逐出教的特別處分。這個密令下發後,“聖母軍”與共產黨的對抗加劇,同時也引起進步宗教人士的強烈不滿。

煽動教徒對抗共產黨政權

新中國成立後,莫克勤根據黎培裏的指示,在全國成立了3個分會:即“聖母軍”上海分會,分管華東、中南、西南地區;“聖母軍”北京分會,管轄華北、西北地區;“聖母軍”天津分會,管轄東北、山東地區。顯然,黎培裏、莫克勤看到中國共產黨奪取了全國政權,便改換策略,意圖通過滲透到中國社會方方麵麵進行破壞、搗亂,使新生的人民共和國崩潰或難以轉運。1950年美國間諜陰謀炮轟天安門案就與黎培裏有牽連,事實上,他和在華的許多美國間諜都有密切聯係。意籍神甫馬迪懦是炮擊天安門案主犯之一,同時是黎培裏派駐北京的“教廷公使代表”。馬迪懦被捕時,在其寓所內,搜出他所隱藏的迫擊炮彈、步槍子彈、手槍子彈等259發,手榴彈8枚,迫擊炮彈彈頭和底火、兵器零件等273件,以及他為李安東、黎培裏搜集的情報底稿多件。1951年3月31日,黎培裏致信各地“聖母軍”頭目、天主教主教、反對教友對共產黨組織、地方政府合作,反對天主教教會開展三自(自治、自養、自傳)愛國活動,並譴責南京宗座代牧李維光簽名的《反帝愛國宣言》。同年4月,他再次發出密信,以更強的語氣告誡下屬:以直接或間接的方式推翻他們的權威,不聽命令者將會受到嚴懲。“聖母軍”還印製了攻擊、醜化共產黨和新中國的宣傳讀物《恐怖的共產主義》、《現代問題解答》20餘萬冊,陸續派人到各地煽動地下組織成員抵製、破壞土地改革、抗美援朝、天主教教徒的愛國三自運動,甚至計劃實施暴力恐怖活動,謀害地方黨政軍負責人。新政府果斷出擊

“聖母軍”地下組織的陰謀活動,對新中國的穩定與安全構成了威脅。1951年7月15日,《人民日報》發表了短評《保護正當的信仰自由,取締反革命的“聖母軍”》,正式在全國吹響了打擊“聖母軍”的號角。

天津是“聖母軍”地下組織活動猖獗的地區,摧毀“聖母軍”的戰鬥首先在這裏打響。1951年7月,天津市軍事管製委員會主任黃敬簽署並發布了第21號布告,宣布對“聖母軍”予以取締,天津市公安局依法逮捕了法籍“聖母軍”頭目文貴賓及的“聖母軍”華北分會會長鄧華光等人。得知天津“聖母軍”遭取締,在上海總部的莫克勤惶恐不安,他與沈士賢連續在其總部召開秘密會議,研究對抗的辦法和措施。“聖母軍”頭目們的搗亂與垂死掙紮,激起了廣大民眾的極大憤慨,他們通過各種途徑向黨和政府舉報“聖母軍”總部的違法行為,並強烈要求摧毀“聖母軍”在上海嶽陽路的總部。1951年9月,上海公安機關先後將沈士賢、陳哲敏、莫克勤等意大利籍破壞分子蘇冠明等人抓捕,並繳獲一批武器和特工器材。山東、浙江、湖北、廣東等地也雷厲風行地展開了搗毀“聖母軍”的鬥爭。

莫克勤被逮捕後,對自己所犯罪行供認不諱。1954年5月1日,被關押了兩年多的莫克勤被中國政府驅逐出境。至於披著“教廷駐華公使”外衣的黎培裏,則於1951年9月4日,被南京市軍管會永遠驅逐出境。



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chengliangyu 回複 悄悄話 這些都屬於“反動會道門組織”,真好笑!

當時他們要能及時唱紅歌,就沒事了!
chengliangyu 回複 悄悄話 hi test
口清派海 回複 悄悄話 維基百科上一篇關於聖母軍創立經過及組織結構等一篇文章
值得相信嗎?說實話我曾經相信過1950年代GCD關於聖母軍的指控,等到經曆文革知道黨中央如何炮製劉少奇及其他人的專案,我寧可相信西方的說法了。如果說救世軍事一支搞武裝顛覆的準軍事部隊,在美國會遭人貽笑的,這是我對聖母軍的認識。網上並不缺乏資料,甚至包括了《聖母軍手冊》的完全版本,查一查在發表,比較符合事實一些。
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legion_of_Mary


For the band, see Legion of Mary (band). For the album, see Legion of Mary: The Jerry Garcia Collection, Vol. 1. For the new religious movement in Africa, see Legio Maria.

The Legion of Mary (Latin: Legio Mariae) is an association of Catholic laity who serve the Church on a voluntary basis.[1] It was founded in Dublin, Ireland, as a Roman Catholic Marian Movement by layman Frank Duff. Today between active and auxiliary (praying) members there are in excess of 10 million members worldwide making it the largest apostolic organization of lay people in the Catholic Church.[2] Membership is highest in South Korea, Philippines, Brazil, Argentina and the Democratic Republic of Congo. These countries have between 250,000 and 500,000 members each.[3]

To be in the Legion of Mary, one must be a practising Catholic. Active members serve God under the banner of Mary by practising the Spiritual Works of Mercy. The main apostolate of the Legion consists in activities directed towards all men and women, young and old, rich and poor as well as people from the margins of society (homeless, prostitutes, prisoners etc.) and towards non-Catholics. The members of the Legion are primarily engaged in the performance of the Spiritual Works of Mercy rather than works of material aid.[4]
The Legion of Mary was founded by Frank Duff on September 7, 1921 in Dublin[5]. His idea was to help Catholic laypeople fulfill their baptismal promises and be able to live their dedication to the Church in an organised structure, supported by fraternity and prayer.


The legionaries first started out by visiting hospitals, but they were soon active among the most destitute, notably among Dublin prostitutes. Frank Duff subsequently laid down the system of the Legion in the Handbook of the Legion of Mary in 1928.

The Legion of Mary soon spread from Ireland to other countries and continents. At first, the Legion often met with mistrust due to its dedication to lay apostolate which was unusual for the time. Only after Pope Pius XI expressed praise for the Legion in 1931, could such mistrust be quelled.

Most prominent for spreading the Legion was the Irish legionary Edel Mary Quinn for her activities in Africa during the 1930s and 40s. Her dedication to the mission of the Legion even in the face of her ill health due to tuberculosis brought her great admiration in- and outside of the Legion. A canonization process is currently under way for Edel Quinn and a beatification process is currently underway for Frank Duff.

Membership in Ireland had been declining but due to efforts by the Concilium to attract younger people to its ranks through the Deus et Patria movement a substantial increase in membership has now occurred.

The organization of the Legion is modelled on the Roman Army, starting with the praesidium as its smallest unit, and going up from there. The praesidium, usually a group of 4-20 members, meets weekly in its parish. The Curia is the next level up, and one Curia supervises several Praesidia. The next level is the Comitium, which is in charge of several Curiae, usually over an area like a big city or a part of a province. The following level is the Regia, in charge of larger territories like a province or state (in the U.S.). The Senatus is the next highest level, and it generally has control over the Regiae in a very large area, usually a country or very large territory. The Concilium is the highest level. It has its seat in Dublin, Ireland, and has control over all of the Legion.

Each level of the Legion of Mary has the same officers: The President, the Vice President, the Secretary, the Treasurer, and the Spiritual director. The latter must be a priest or a religious. All other offices are held by laymen or -women.
[edit] Membership
[edit] Entering and leaving the Legion

Membership is open to all baptized Catholics. After visiting a praesidium a few times, one can join the legion as a probationary member. This probationary membership lasts for three months, after which he or she has to decide whether to join the Legion as an active member permanently. During the probationary period, probationary members learn about the legion system by reading the Handbook of the Legion of Mary and its active works by listening to reports of active works undertaken by fellow legionaries. At the end of probationary period, members say an oath of "Legion promise", a pledge of allegiance to the Holy Spirit and to Mary, in order to become a permanent active member. Membership in the Legion of Mary is essentially based on discipline and commitment. Members devote their time and prayer for the intentions of Mary, Mother of God. Members can withdraw from the Legion by informing the president of his or her praesidium.
[edit] Types of membership

Active members: They regularly attend the weekly sessions of their praesidium and pray daily the prayer of the Legion, the Catena Legionis, which consists essentially of the Magnificat and some shorter prayers. Their main role lies in active apostolate for the Legion and the Church. Active members under the age of 18 are not allowed to give the "Legion promise" until they turn 18. Members 18 and under are considered Juniors, and are able to hold any office except President in their praesidium. Above the level of the praesidium, no Junior may serve as an officer.

Auxiliary members: They support the Legion through their prayer. They pray the whole booklet of Legion prayers, the Tessera, every day. The Tessera consists of the Invocation, prayers to the Holy Spirit, the Rosary, the Catena, and the concluding prayers of the Tessera.

Praetorians: This is a higher grade of active membership. In addition to their duties as active members, Pretorians pray the Rosary, the Divine Office and go to Holy Mass daily.

Adjutorians: A higher grade of auxiliary membership. Adjutorians additionally pray the Divine Office and go to Holy Mass daily.

Praetorians and Adjutors do not have higher status or higher rank inside the Legion system. The meaning of these grades is only a desire for a more devotional life, not for higher status. Entering the grade is done by registering with a list of Praetorians/Adjutors and by subsequently observing their duties.
ahhhh 回複 悄悄話 結果是間諜沒抓到,無辜的信友被迫害。
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