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讀史摘抄(二)Why the West Rules—For Now : Ian Morris

(2021-02-20 07:21:56) 下一個

16.冒頓單於算是匈奴中有作為的一個,也就是說他作為敵人不是什麽好事情。秦始皇死的時候,他開始當權匈奴,利用中國內戰搶掠邊疆。書中說:"He took over the Xiongnu in 209 BCE, right after the First Emperor's death, and for nine years exploited China's civil wars to loot to his heart's content."

17.評論當世之功,宜用後世之果, 武帝窮兵竇武,遭士人非議,然而其功在使匈奴不能再如前輕易掠奪獲得利益以凝聚草原各部,從而種下匈奴內部分裂之因。這一點很客觀,書中說:"Wudi's critics--the educated elite who wrote the history books--concluded that his preemptive war had been a disaster. But Wudi's campaigns, like those Darius of Persia waged against the Scythians four hundred years earlier (which were also judged a failure by the history writers), transformed the nomad problem".

18.哥倫布發現美洲帶來了歐洲的病毒可能殺死了四分之三的美洲人(確切?)。書中說:"but the Columbian Exchange probably cut short the lives of at least three out of every four people in the New World".

19.漢朝用蠻製蠻。其實這可能是西方人的觀點,我覺得中國人(漢朝人)的想法更多是如果匈奴人願意屯邊開耕(不知道歸化漢朝的匈奴是否轉向農耕,我的意思是隻要他們不燒殺搶掠),可能漢朝自然而然允許他們為民,這也算是中國文化的一種包容性,不像西方思維始終要分開分清很多東西,比如說基因,宗教,膚色等等,中國文化更容易包容,同化。書中說:"and as they perfected the 'using barbarians to fight barbarians' policy in the first century CE they settled many of these nomads within the empire".

20.五鬥米道把四川變成了一個道教王國。今天的四川人還會有更多的道教思想嗎?四川人說老子怎麽怎麽,可能這算不算一種巧合呢(戲語)?書中說:"turned Sichuan into an independent Daoist theocracy".

21.書中說曹操是業餘詩人。書中說:"the warlord and part-time poet Cao Cao wrote sometime after 197."

22.書中說曹操是一個很複雜的人。這一點倒說得很準。書中說:"Cao was a complicated man."

23.曹操的壞名聲主要是後人加上去的,而不是他自己的不善造成的。這一點也是普遍認同的。書中說:"Cao's bad reputation has more to do with what happened after his death than with his own misdeeds."

24.晉武帝司馬炎兒子生太多了,後來八王之亂。書中說:"the Jin emperor sired twenty-seven sons, and when he died in 289 some of them hired the wildest nomads they could find to fight one another".

25.五胡亂華時期戰爭屠殺之慘象。書中摘引史料說:"Corpses were piled outside the city walls, where they were all eaten by jackals, wolves, and wild dogs".

26.東晉苟且還殘存了100年,其間文化藝術致於新高峰。書中說:"produced magnificient literature and art, and, most remarkable of all, survived for a century".

27.羅馬暴君尼祿的怪癖,喜歡讓議員們在公眾前唱歌。書中說:"Nero's fondness for forcing senators to sing in public."

28.修牆修長城並不是中國才有的主意。書中說:"Like the Han, Rome responded to increasingly porous borders by building walls (most famously Hadrian's across Britain)".

29.波斯人玩膩了俘虜來的皇帝,把他剝了皮,掛在城牆上。殘忍的行為不限於人種,不要自恨了,或者自卑,或者自傲,。。。等等引申(說白了,人類大體都一樣)。書中說:"but the reality seems to be that the Persians, like the Xiongnu when they captured Chinese emperors, eventually got bored. They flayed Valerian and hung his skin on their capital's walls."

30.病急亂投醫,當權者未必高明哦。書中說:"(Rome) emperors needed more money and troops than ever before. Their first (not-so-bright) idea, paying for new armies with debased currency, simply made money worthless and accelerated economic collapse".

待續。

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